Welcome Today 09 23 2018

Kidney Stone Symptoms and Diagnosis


Kidney Stone Symptoms and Examination Stages

a) Pain: Pain in the form of a renal colic: buildup of the collecting system or ureter occurs.
Non-colic pain is caused by stretching of the kidney capsule.

b) Hematuria: Patients have intermittent macroscopic hematuria or occasional tea colored urine.

c) Infection: Struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) stones are infectious stones. Infection occurs when the apatite stones are above urine pH 6.6.

d) Fire

e) Nausea, vomiting: Upper urinary tract obstruction often leads to nausea and vomiting.


Although there is no significant hypercalciuria with pregnancy, the stone density is 1/1500. Pregnancy increases by 25-30% in GF. Calcium, uric acid, sodium are thought to be responsible for the increased stone buildup of the filtrate.

Approximately 90% of symptomatic stones are detected during the second and third trimester. D-j catheter insertion is recommended in problematic patients.


Radiologic examination: Dysraphy, ultrasonography, ivp (intravenous pyelography), tomography, retrograde pyelography M-RI, nuclear scintigraphy

böbrek taşı

Stones that may form as a result of drug treatments

Sulfonamides, triamteres, acyclovir, antinotroviral drugs can make stones in the urinary tract.

Calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, sodium and creatinine levels should be measured in 24 hour urine in recurrent stone patients.

24-hour urine sample normal values:

Male (mg / hour) Female (mg / hour)
Calcium Uric Acid Citrate> 200> 400

Causes of kidney stone formation

There are genetic, environmental and nutritional factors in kidney stone formation.

Genetically; cystinuria, renal tubular acidosis, decreased renal aldolase activity and abnormal purine metabolism.

Environmental factors; excessive temperature and excessive moisture loss in the moisture.

Nutritional factors; consumption of excess raw green vegetables can lead to calcium oxalate stones, excessive protein and animal fat consumption can lead to uric acid stones.

In the formation of calcium stones, excess calcium is absorbed from the walls and excess calcium comes out and calcium containing stones form. Another factor in the formation of calcium stones is renal hyperalgesia, which results in impaired absorption of calcium and loss of urine and calcium. In these patients, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D increase.

There are factors such as acidic urine in the formation of uric acid stones, urine in small amounts and uric acid increase in urine. Gout disease, prolonged diarrhea, elevated uric acid and excessive protein intake can also cause uric acid stones.

Non-acid (alkali) urine can cause struvite or infections (triple phosphate) stones.

Diagnosis and diagnosis

Stone disease; pain, bloody urine, nausea-vomiting, and fever-chills. The pain in the kidney stones is usually brittle and this region is fragile. Pain in upper urinary tract stones spreads through the flesh of the femur and the genital organ is spread to the ovaries or females on the same side. In bladder (urine bag) stones, the pain strikes the penis and severe urinary complaints are seen. Fire-flicker is a sign of infection. Urine culture should be taken and antibiotic therapy should be started.

Diagnosis is made by ultrasonography and radiography. Intravenous urography gives information about whether the urinary system is obstructed, loss of function or delayed. It provides information about the stone, kidneys, and urinary tracts and helps plan the shape of the initiative. Computerized tomography is rarely needed in stone disease.

Similar Articles
8 March 2016 IMG_0992

Kidney Stone Types